Study 1 explores the self-relevance dimension of message tailoring while Study 2 focuses on the adaptation of content from message tailoring. Each study has two phases: the first phase demonstrates neural substrate activation associated with specific aspects of tailored messages (fMRI); the second phase explores smoking cessation associated with brain region activations found in the first phase of the study.
Aim 1a. Determine if exposure to high-tailored messages focusing on self-relevance and exposure to standard self-relevant stimuli will activate a similar region of the brain of each subject, within the MPFC. Using a region-of-interest analysis, it is hypothesized that these regions will also have increased neural activation under exposure to high-tailored smoking cessation messages, when compared with targeted messages.
Aim 1b. Determine if the degree of activation of regions of the brain associated with tailoring of self-relevance (as determined in 1a) will predict smoking abstinence at four-months after administration of a tailored smoking cessation program.
Aim 2a. Determine if exposure to high-tailored motivational messages will activate areas associated with motivational drives and reward processing (including nucleus accumbens, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and ventrotegmental area) when compared against neutral messages.
Aim 2b. Determine if exposure to high-tailored instructional messages will activate areas associated with processing rules and instructions (dorsolateral and anterior prefrontal cortex), and motor programming (caudate) and preparation (pre-Supplementary Area [pre-SMA]) when compared against neutral messages.
Aim 2c. Determine if degree of activation in regions of the brain associated with motivational messages and instructional messages (as determined in Aims 2a and 2b) will predict smoking abstinence at four-months after administration of a tailored smoking cessation program.
Eighty-eight smokers, ages 21-55 who are interested in quitting smoking, recruited through local flyers, newspaper advertisements, and Engage (the University of Michigan's clinical research study volunteer website).