- breast cancer
- colorectal cancer
- disease management
- gastrointestinal illness
- health insurance
- hearing loss
- hearing protection
- heart disease
- HIV / AIDS
- lung cancer
- medical history
- medication adherence
- mental health
- oral health
- organ donation
- organ transplant
- ovarian cancer
- physical activity
- prostate cancer
- quality of life
- skin cancer
- sleep safety
- weight loss
- African Americans
- college students
- fraternities and sororities
- health care providers
- high risk
- HMO members
- older adults
- people living with HIV/AIDS
- research volunteers
- school age children
- transplant recipients
- transplant waiting list
- young adults
Project Overview +
This project runs in conjunction with Phase I of Project Quit. While Project Quit focuses on tailoring messages based on a variety of theoretical constructs, this study focuses on tailoring those messages on a deeper level. Depth of tailoring is another potentially active ingredient in tailoring and refers to the level of detail of tailoring and the extent of the connections made among theory-based constructs.
Aim 1. Compare the effectiveness of low- versus high-depth tailored websites in achieving a 7-day abstinence measured at 6-month follow-up.
Aim 2. Compare the effectiveness of low- versus high-depth tailored websites on smoking cessation across baseline characteristics of self-efficacy, motivation, gender, age, income, and education.
1,848 participants from three HMOs: Group Health (Seattle, WA), HealthPartners (Minneapolis, MN) and the Health Alliance Plan (Detroit, MI).
Participants are randomized into one of 16 study arms. All participants receive a web-based guide to help them quit smoking, along with a free 10-week supply of nicotine replacement therapy patches. Email messages are sent to participants about various aspects of the program, including patch use and step down process, and the availability of new web guide materials.
The 6 components for each web guide include:
- Source Letter: available immediately after baseline survey
- Action Plan: available immediately OR 7 days before Quit date
- Efficacy x 2: available immediately OR 1 day before and 7 days after Quit date
- Outcomes: available immediately OR 14 days after Quit date
- Testimonial: available immediately OR 21 days after Quit date
- High vs. Low Depth: All components are tailored, using a high or low degree of depth.
- Single vs. Multiple Exposure: Participants receive web guide components either all at once (immediately after baseline survey), OR as listed above, over time.
- Gain vs. Loss Framed Messages: Outcomes messages are written either in terms of the benefits users stand to gain by quitting or the risks they stand to face by continuing to smoke.
Other findings include:
- Abstinence was most influenced by high-tailored success stories (testimonials) and high-personalized message source (source letter).
- Cumulative assignment of the three tailoring depth factors (message source, testimonial, and efficacy) also resulted in increasing rates of six-month cessation, demonstrating an effect of tailoring depth.
- Greater engagement with a web-based smoking cessation program results in greater subsequent cessation.
- The depth of tailoring in smoking cessation messages results in greater perceptions of message relevance, which, in turn, results in greater engagement with a web-based smoking cessation program.
- A significant number of smokers can be recruited through Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) for web-based smoking cessation interventions.
- African Americans with a large number of people supporting their quit efforts were more than two times more likely to quit than those with few or no supporters, regardless of tailoring intensity.
The study identified relevant components of smoking cessation interventions that should be generalizable to other cessation interventions. The study also demonstrates the importance of higher-depth tailoring in smoking cessation programs. Finally, the fractional factorial design allowed efficient examination of the study aims. The rapidly changing interfaces, software, and capabilities of eHealth are likely to require such dynamic experimental approaches to intervention discovery.
07/01/2003 - 08/31/2008
- The multiphase optimization strategy for engineering effective tobacco use interventions (2010)
- New methods for tobacco dependence treatment research (2010)
- Developing multicomponent interventions using fractional factorial designs (2009)
- Comparison of a phased experimental approach and a single randomized clinical trial for developing multicomponent behavioral interventions (2009)
- The role of engagement in a tailored web-based smoking cessation program: randomized controlled trial (2008)
- Web-based smoking-cessation programs: results of a randomized trial (2008)
- The multiphase optimization strategy (MOST) and the sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (SMART): new methods for more potent eHealth interventions (2007)
- A strategy for optimizing and evaluating behavioral interventions (2005)